Combine lentils, barley, tomatoes (broken up) and tomato paste in large casserole dish or roaster.
Heat oil in fry pan and add all vegetables, sautéing until onions are slightly caramelized. Add spices, salt and pepper and combine with ingredients in roaster. Use hot water to deglaze the veg pan and add to rest of ingredients.
Cover with foil and bake at 350F for 1 hour. Remove foil (carefully to avoid steam burn) and add one to two cups of water and stir. Cover with grated cheese and bake 15 min until cheese is bubbly and golden.